Anatomy

12 Authority record results for Anatomy

12 results directly related Exclude narrower terms

Acland, Henry Wentworth Dyke

  • Person
  • 1815-1900

Born at Killerton, Devon. Educated at Harrow and Christ Church, Oxford. Studied medicine at St George's Hospital and Edinburgh. All Souls fellowship 1842, Lee's reader in anatomy at Christ Church 1846; BM 1846.

Physician at the Radcliffe Infirmary 1847. Aldrichian professor of clinical medicine 1851. Radcliffe librarian at Oxford. Fellow of the Royal Society. Regius chair of medicine at Oxford 1857. Founded the Oxford University Museum 1860; curator of the university galleries and the Bodleian Library. Private practice in Oxford. Oxford's first representative on the General Medical Council 1858; president of the council 1874-1887. Harveian orator 1867. Baronet in 1890.

Married Sarah Cotton, daughter of William Cotton, FRS, in 1846; they had seven sons (including T.D. Acland, FRCP) and one daughter. Died 16 Oct 1900 at Oxford.

Baillie, Matthew

  • Person
  • 1761-1823

Born in Lanarkshire 27 Oct 1761, the son of Rev James Baillie (subsequently professor of divinity at the University of Glasgow) and Dorothea Hunter, sister of William and John Hunter. His sister was poet Joanna Baillie. Educated at Hamilton. Student at University of Glasgow and Balliol College, University of Oxford from 1779. Graduated AB 1783, AM 1786, MB 1786, MD 1789.

Baillie spent his holidays in London staying with his uncle William Hunter, and studied anatomy at St George's under his uncle John Hunter, as well as assisting him on his lectures and demonstrations and supervised students making dissections. On the death of William Hunter, Baillie inherited £5,000, Hunter's house on Great Windmill Street and the use of Hunter's museum until 30 years from Hunter's death, as well as a small estate in Scotland, which he gave to John Hunter. Baillie lectured at the school from 1783-84 to 1799 or 1803.

He was appointed physician at St George's Hospital in 1787. Candidate of the Royal College of Physicians 1789, fellow 1790; censor in 1791 and 1796, elect 1809. Honorary fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh 1809. Fellow of the Royal Society. Baillie succeeded his friends David Pitcairn and Dr Warren to practice, which grew so rapidly that he resigned his appointment at St George's as well as giving up on teaching anatomy, devoting himself to his medical practice. Appointed physician extraordinary to George III and in 1814 physician in ordinary to Princess Charlotte. Declined baronetcy for his services to the king.

Published widely on anatomy and pathology; his 'The Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body', published in 1793, is considered the first systematic study of pathology, and the first publication in English on pathology as a separate subjects. He is credited with identifying transposition of the great vessels (TGV) and situs inversus.

Married Sophia Denman, daughter of physician Thomas Denman, an alumnus of St George's. Retired to Gloucestershire, where he died 23 Sep 1823, aged 62 after briefly suffering from inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea. His wife Sophia died in 1845, aged 74.

Bright, George Charles

  • Person
  • 1840-1922

The son of Richard Bright F.R.C.P, G.C. Educated at Rugby and Balliol College, Oxford, were he graduated with first-class honours in natural science in 1863.

He studied medicine at St George's Hospital, and also at Edinburgh and Paris. His first practice was in London and he held appointments at St George's Hospital as lecturer on comparative anatomy, and at St George's and St James's Dispensary as physician.

He married in 1869 and soon after left London for the continent. He practiced for a time in Dresden but in 1875 settled permanently in Cannes. One of the subjects of his research was the condition of the air in hospital wards. He died on 21st January 1922 in Cannes, survived by his wife and three daughters.

Carpue, Joseph Constantine

  • Person
  • 1764-1848

Carpue’s connection with St. George’s was brief: he enrolled as a student in August 1796 under Everard Home. After 1799 he took up surgical posts at the Duke of York Hospital, Chelsea, St. Pancras’ Infirmary, and the National Vaccine Institution. He achieved fame as an anatomical tutor with a private school of anatomy in Dean Street, Soho. His bust by William Behnes was bequeathed to St. George’s Hospital by his daughter Emma Carpue who also left the hospital £6,500. He died in 1846 following an accident on the South-Western railway from which he never recovered.

Carter, Henry Vandyke

  • Person
  • 1831-1897

Born in Hull, the eldest son of the painter Henry Barlow Carter and Eliza Barlow. He grew up in Scarborough and was educated at Hull Grammar School and St George's Hospital School of Medicine, where he started in 1847. He qualified M.R.C.S., L.S.A. in 1852, and spent a year in Paris following his studies.

On his return to London in 1853 he began studying human and comparative anatomy at the Royal College of Surgeons. During this time he also worked as a demonstrator at St George's Hospital until July 1857. In 1853 he was commissioned to make anatomical drawings for St George's Hospital School of Medicine. He obtained his Bachelor of Medicine at St George's Hospital School of Medicine in 1854, a degree he had initially failed the previous year.

He met Henry Gray at St George's around 1850, and worked with him to illustrate his books, most famously in 1856-1857 Gray's proposed anatomical textbook, which was to be known later as 'Gray's Anatomy'. Gray, however, did not credit Carter for his work on 'On the Structure and Use of the Spleen', 1851, and there were disagreements about acknowledgments as well as pay for Carter's later work.

In 1858 Carter moved to India and joined the Bombay Medical Service, where he became Professor of Anatomy and Physiology at Grant Medical College. He also worked as Assistant-Surgeon in the Jamsetjee Jheejeebhoy Hospital. Between 1863 and 1872 he was Civil Surgeon in Satara. He returned to Europe briefly in 1872 to study leprosy in Norway and elsewhere. Returning to India in 1875, he investigated leprosy in Kathiawar. In 1876 he was put in charge of Goculdas Tejpal Hospital in Bombay, and in 1877 he became Principal of Grant Medical College and Physician of Jamsetjee Jheejeebhoy Hospital.

His publications made important contributions to tropical pathology, particularly in relation to leprosy, mycetoma, and relapsing fever. They include 'The Microscopic Structure and Mode of Formation of Urinary Calculi' (1873), 'On Mycetoma or the Fungus Disease of India' (1874), 'Report on Leprosy and Leper Asylums of Norway' (1874), 'On Leprosy and Elephantiasis' (1874), 'Modern Indian Leprosy' (1876), and 'Spirillum Fever: Synonyms Famine or Relapsing Fever as Seen in Western India' (1882)

He retired with the rank of Deputy Surgeon General in 1888 and became Honorary surgeon to the queen in 1890. He died at Scarborough on 4 May 1897.

Hewett, Prescott Gardner

  • Person
  • 1812-1891

Born near Doncaster, the son of a country gentleman. Studied art in Paris, intending to become a painter, but chose to study surgery instead.

Student at St George's Hospital Medical School. House surgeon 1838, demonstrator of anatomy and the first curator of the museum at St George's Hospital, possibly in 1840[?]. Hewett set up the system for recording post mortem examinations at the hospital. Lecturer on anatomy 1845. Assistant surgeon 1848-1861, surgeon 1861-1875, consulting surgeon 1875-1891.

FRCS 1843. President of the Pathological Society of London and the Clinical Society. Arris and Gale Professor of Human Anatomy and Physiology, member of the council, chairman of the Board of Examiners in Midwifery, vice-president and president of the Royal College of Surgeons. Surgeon-extraordinary to Queen Victoria 1867, sergeant-surgeon extraordinary 1877 and sergeant-surgeon following Caesar Hawkins 1884. Surgeon to Prince of Wales, afterwards King Edward VII. Baronet 1883.

Specialisms: Anatomy, head injuries.

Married Sarah Cowell in 1849; they had two daughters and one son. Died 19 Jun 1891 at Horsham, where he had retired to. He gifted his collection of water colour paintings 'to the nation' in 1891.

Hunter, John

  • GB/NNAF/P165880 (Former ISAAR ref: GB/NNAF/P14923 )
  • Person
  • 13 February 1728 – 16 October 1793

John Hunter (1728-1793) came to London in 1748 at the age of 20 and worked as an assistant in the anatomy school of his elder brother William (1718-83), who was already an established physician and obstetrician. Under William's direction, John learnt human anatomy and showed great aptitude in the dissection and preparation of specimens. William also arranged for him to study under the eminent surgeons William Cheselden (1688-1752) and Percivall Pott (1714-88).

Hunter was commissioned as an army surgeon in 1760 and spent three years in France and Portugal. As well as developing new ideas on the treatment of common ailments - such as gunshot wounds and venereal disease - Hunter spent time collecting specimens of lizards and other animals. On his return to England in 1763 he began to build up his private practice. His scientific work was rewarded in 1767 when he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1768 he was elected Surgeon to St George's Hospital, and in 1783 he moved to a large house in Leicester Square, which enabled him to take resident pupils and to arrange his collection into a teaching museum.

Hunter devoted all his resources to his museum. It included nearly 14,000 preparations of more than 500 different species of plants and animals. As his reputation grew, he was supplied with rare specimens such as kangaroos brought back by Sir Joseph Banks from James Cook’s voyage of 1768-71.

While most of his contemporaries taught only human anatomy, Hunter's lectures stressed the relationship between structure and function in all kinds of living creatures. Hunter believed that surgeons should understand how the body adapted to and compensated for damage due to injury, disease or environmental changes. He encouraged students such as Edward Jenner and Astley Cooper to carry out experimental research and to apply the knowledge gained to the treatment of patients.

By the 1780s Hunter enjoyed widespread recognition as the leading teacher of surgery of his time. However, the acclaim did little to mellow his blunt-speaking and argumentative nature. His temper was to be his downfall: Hunter died in 1793 after suffering a fit during an argument at St George's Hospital over the acceptance of students for training.

Hunter is today remembered as a founder of `scientific surgery'. He was unique in seeking to provide an experimental basis to surgical practice, and his museum is a lasting record of his pioneering work

Lane, Samuel Armstrong

  • Person
  • 1802-1892

Educated at the Great Windmill Street School and St George’s Hospital. On his application as an assistant surgeon at St George’s in 1834, however, he was turned down in favour of Edward Cutler. Feeling he had been unfairly treated because Cutler was a relative of Benjamin Collins Brodie, Lane founded a rival anatomical school nearby at Grosvenor Place; the school soon became popular and was one of the schools attended by the pupils from St George’s Hospital.

Lane became senior surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital soon after its establishment in 1852, and Lane transferred his pathological and anatomical collections to the new school at St Mary’s Hospital. He also worked at the Lock Hospital. He was one of the original 300 fellows of the Royal College of Surgeons, and a member of the Council. He was also a fellow, member of the Council and vice-president of the Royal Medico-Chirurgical Society.

He was known as a skilled surgeon, and was one of the first to practice ovariotomy. He also performed the first successful blood transfer to treat haemophilia in 1840. He published a series of well-received articles on syphilis, however, being opposed to medical specialisms he refused to continue publishing on the subject.

He retired to Ealing, and died 2 Aug 1892, aged 90. His nephew James Robert Lane and his great-nephew James Ernest Lane continued his work at St Mary’s Hospital and with syphilis.

Pathology Museum

  • Corporate body
  • 1843-

St George’s Pathology Museum was established in 1843, when Sir Benjamin Brodie presented his pathological specimen collection to St George’s in 1843, and during the 1840s Robert Keate, Caesar Hawkins and Robert Lee added further specimens in the collections.

Prescott Hewett was appointed the first curator, and he also introduced the practice of keeping post mortem books. The curator of the museum was also responsible for conducting post mortem examinations together with the assistant curator, and the post mortem casebooks frequently refer to pathological specimens preserved in the museum. Specimens were regularly obtained from post mortem examinations or during surgery at the hospital, and the museum has continued to be an integral part of teaching at St George's.

The School of Anatomy and Medicine adjoining St George's Hospital

  • Corporate body
  • 1827-1863

Established by a former student of St George’s, Samuel Armstrong Lane after being rejected from the post of assistant surgeon at St George’s Hospital in 1834. The school was housed at the back of Lane’s house on 1 Grosvenor Place, near St George’s Hospital on Hyde Park Corner, and soon became known as the School of Anatomy and Medicine adjoining St George’s Hospital. The school was in competition with the Kinnerton Street School, formally established in 1836, which became the official medical school for St George’s; pupils at the hospital could attend either of these schools, as well as a number of other anatomical schools. Lane became senior surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital soon after its establishment in 1852, and Lane transferred his pathological and anatomical collections to the new school at St Mary’s Hospital. Lane’s school closed down in 1863.

Williams, Charles James Blasius

  • Person
  • 1805-1889

Born in the Hungerford almshouse in Wiltshire, where his father, Rev David Williams, was a warden. His mother was the daughter of a Monmouthshire surgeon.

Educated at the University of Edinburgh, 1820. MD 1824. Travelled to Paris in 1825-1827, where he drew and studied medicine. Became a pioneer in auscultation and the use of stethoscope; he became a specialist in the diseases of the chest. Medical practice at Half Moon Street; later at Cavendish Square and Upper Brook Street. Fellow of the Royal Society 1835. Lecturer in anatomy at St George’s in 1836 on diseases of the chest. Professor of medicine and physician to University College London 1839. Fellow of the College of Physicians in London; censor and Lumleian lecturer. One of the founders and a supporter of the Consumption Hospital, Brompton. First president of the Pathological Society in 1846. President of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society. Physician extraordinary to the queen in 1874.

Married Harriet Williams Jenkins of Chepstow in 1830. Retired to Cannes, France in 1875. Died 24 Mar 1889 at Cannes.

Wilson, James Arthur

  • Person
  • 1795-1882

Son of James Wilson, surgeon and teacher of anatomy at the Hunterian School in Great Windmill Street. Educated at St Peter's College, Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford, graduating in 1815; AM 1818, MB 1819 and MD 1823. Travelled and worked in Europe in the 1820s, including in Italy as physician to lord and lady Spencer in 1819-1820.

Physician at St George's Hospital 1829-1857, consulting physician 1868-1882, lecturer in anatomy.

Fellow and censor of the Royal College of Physicians 1825; Lumleian lecturer and Harveian orator. Retired 1868; lived in South Holmwood, Dorking. Died 29 Dec 1882.