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Authority record

St George's Hospital, London

  • GB/NNAF/C179806 (Former ISAAR ref: GB/NNAF/O108191 )
  • Corporate body
  • 1733-

St George's Hospital opened in 1733 at Lanesborough House, Hyde Park Corner in London, in what was then a countryside location. The hospital owes its existence to four men, Henry Hoare, William Wogan, Robert Witham and the Reverend Patrick Cockburn, who collectively founded the Westminster Public Infirmary in Petty France in 1720. The ever increasing needs of the sick forced the Westminster Public Infirmary to seek improved and enlarged premises. A disagreement between members of both the Governors and medical staff on the choice of building led to the founding of both Westminster Hospital in Castle Lane and Saint George's Hospital on Hyde Park Corner.

In 1735, Saint George's Hospital purchased the freehold of Lanesborough House, two adjoining houses and two acres of land. Under the direction of Isaac Ware of the Board of Works, the hospital was enlarged to accommodate 200 patients. By 1825 the hospital was falling into disrepair. A competition was held for the design of a new hospital. It was won by William Wilkins, and the new building was opened at Hyde Park Corner in 1829. Since its foundation, Saint George's Hospital has been training medical students. In 1834, a medical school was established in Kinnerton Street and it was incorporated into the main hospital building in 1868.

Just before the beginning of the Second World War, it was decided that Saint George's needed to be rebuilt on its Hyde Park Corner site. The plan was however abandoned by the commencement of hostilities. During the War, against a background of the population shift from central London, discussions took place which paved the way for Saint George's to be rebuilt and transferred out of the city centre. With the introduction of the National Health Service in 1948, the hospital became part of the Saint George's Hospital Teaching Group of the South West Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board. Soon after, the Board of Governors persuaded Aneurin Bevan, the Minister of Health, that the new hospital should be built on the Grove Fever Hospital and Fountain Hospital sites in Tooting. Patients began to be admitted into the Grove Hospital in 1951 and, by 1953, the Grove Hospital was designated to Saint George's and responsibility for it was transferred from the Wandsworth Hospital Group to the Board of Governors of Saint George's. The Fountain Children's Hospital site adjacent to the Grove Hospital was added to the land available for the Saint George's Hospital redevelopment when the Fountain transferred to Queen Mary's Hospital, Carshalton.

The building of the new Saint George's at Tooting, South West London, began in 1973. Following the reorganisation of the National Health Service in 1974, the Board of Governors was disbanded, and the responsibility for Saint George's Hospital was passed to the Wandsworth and Merton District of the Merton, Sutton and Wandsworth Area Health Authority. South West Thames Regional Health Authority assumed responsibility for the rebuilding of the new Saint George's. The first phase of the new Saint George's Hospital Medical School opened in 1976. The hospital at Hyde Park closed its doors for the final time in 1980 and HM Queen Elizabeth II formally opened the new St George's Hospital and Medical School at Tooting on 6 November 1980. Lanesborough Wing, the first of the ward blocks opened in 1980. In 1993, Saint George's Hospital came under the control of Saint George's Healthcare NHS Trust.

The hospital has been administered by the following:

1733 - 1948: Saint George's Hospital
1948 - 1974: Saint George's Hospital Teaching Group of South West Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board
1974 - 1982: Merton, Sutton and Wandsworth Area Health Authority of South West Thames Regional Hospital Board
1982 - 1993: Wandsworth District Health Authority of South West Thames Regional Hospital Board
1993 - : Saint George's Healthcare NHS Trust

St George's Hospital Medical School, London

  • GB/NNAF/C43282 (Former ISAAR ref: GB/NNAF/O27447 )
  • Corporate body
  • 1752-

St George's, University of London (legal name St George's Hospital Medical School, informally St George's or SGUL), is a medical school located in Tooting in South West London. The Medical School shares a closely related history with St George's Hospital, which opened in 1733 at Lanesborough House, Hyde Park Corner in Central London. St George's was the second institution in England to provide formal training courses for doctors (after the University of Oxford). The Medical School became a constituent college of the University of London soon after the latter's establishment in 1836.

From the very beginning, the physicians and surgeons were permitted by the laws of the Hospital to have a limited number of pupils. A formal register of pupils was maintained from 1752. The earliest recorded course of lectures at the hospital was that delivered by Sir Everard Home some time before 1803. Prior to this, there were no lectures and little regular teaching at all in the Hospital other than what the students could pick up from the physicians and surgeons on their way round the wards. Attempts to remedy this situation were a cause of friction between renowned surgeon John Hunter and his colleagues. In 1793 they drew up a number of suggestions and regulations relating to the instruction and discipline of the pupils of the hospital.

From the beginning of the nineteenth century medical training became more structured, and pupils at St George's were required to learn anatomy at either Hunter's, Lane's, Carpue's or Brookes' schools of anatomy, which were private academies set up for this purpose. Chemistry was taught at the Royal Institution in Albermarle Street in addition to the clinical subjects which were dealt with at St George's Hospital.

Samuel Lane's anatomy school was known as 'The School of Anatomy and Medicine adjoining St George's Hospital'. Due to disagreement between Mr Lane and other medical officers at St George's, it was seen as essential to have a school of anatomy more closely connected to St George's and controlled by staff there. This led to surgeon Benjamin Brodie purchasing a house on Kinnerton Street, which he then leased back to St George's for use as an anatomy theatre, a lecture room and a museum. As a result of this, for 20 years there were now two rival schools associated with St George's. Attempts were made to amalgamate the two schools, but none succeeded. Finally the Kinnerton School moved to buildings attached to the hospital in 1968 and became the sole "Medical School of St George's Hospital". Lane's school closed down in 1863.

Although pupils were trained at the Hospital from its foundation, the medical school was not formally established until 1834 when it opened at the premises on Kinnerton Street. The formal opening ceremony for the school was held in 1835 in the Anatomy Theatre on the premises, and saw the dissection of an ancient Egyptian mummy.

In 1868 the medical school at Kinnerton Street was moved to the buildings at the south-west corner of the hospital site in Hyde Park itself, with the main entrance in Knightsbridge and the back entrance on Grosvenor Crescent Mews. Until 1946 the Medical School, although recognised as a School of London University, was controlled by a Medical School Committee, made up of honorary staff of the Hospital. In 1945 the Medical School Committee was divided into a School Council and an Academic Board.

In 1915, in response to wartime staff shortages, St George's admitted its first four female medical students. Just before the outbreak of World War Two, it was decided that Saint George's needed to be rebuilt on its Hyde Park Corner site. The plan was however abandoned by the commencement of the war. During the War, against a background of the population shift from central London, discussions took place which paved the way for Saint George's to be rebuilt and transferred out of the city centre. With the introduction of the National Health Service in 1948, the hospital became part of the Saint George's Hospital Teaching Group of the South West Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board. Soon after, the Board of Governors persuaded Aneurin Bevan, the Minister of Health, that the new Hospital should be built on the Grove Fever Hospital and Fountain Hospital sites in Tooting.

The building of the new Saint George's at Tooting, South West London, began in 1973. The first phase of the new Saint George's Hospital Medical School opened in 1976. The Hospital at Hyde Park closed its doors for the final time in 1980 and HM Queen Elizabeth II formally opened the new St George's Hospital and Medical School at Tooting on 6 November 1980.

Hunter, John

  • GB/NNAF/P165880 (Former ISAAR ref: GB/NNAF/P14923 )
  • Person
  • 13 February 1728 – 16 October 1793

John Hunter (1728-1793) came to London in 1748 at the age of 20 and worked as an assistant in the anatomy school of his elder brother William (1718-83), who was already an established physician and obstetrician. Under William's direction, John learnt human anatomy and showed great aptitude in the dissection and preparation of specimens. William also arranged for him to study under the eminent surgeons William Cheselden (1688-1752) and Percivall Pott (1714-88).

Hunter was commissioned as an army surgeon in 1760 and spent three years in France and Portugal. As well as developing new ideas on the treatment of common ailments - such as gunshot wounds and venereal disease - Hunter spent time collecting specimens of lizards and other animals. On his return to England in 1763 he began to build up his private practice. His scientific work was rewarded in 1767 when he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1768 he was elected Surgeon to St George's Hospital, and in 1783 he moved to a large house in Leicester Square, which enabled him to take resident pupils and to arrange his collection into a teaching museum.

Hunter devoted all his resources to his museum. It included nearly 14,000 preparations of more than 500 different species of plants and animals. As his reputation grew, he was supplied with rare specimens such as kangaroos brought back by Sir Joseph Banks from James Cook’s voyage of 1768-71.

While most of his contemporaries taught only human anatomy, Hunter's lectures stressed the relationship between structure and function in all kinds of living creatures. Hunter believed that surgeons should understand how the body adapted to and compensated for damage due to injury, disease or environmental changes. He encouraged students such as Edward Jenner and Astley Cooper to carry out experimental research and to apply the knowledge gained to the treatment of patients.

By the 1780s Hunter enjoyed widespread recognition as the leading teacher of surgery of his time. However, the acclaim did little to mellow his blunt-speaking and argumentative nature. His temper was to be his downfall: Hunter died in 1793 after suffering a fit during an argument at St George's Hospital over the acceptance of students for training.

Hunter is today remembered as a founder of `scientific surgery'. He was unique in seeking to provide an experimental basis to surgical practice, and his museum is a lasting record of his pioneering work

Joe Bloggs

  • TEST
  • Person
  • 2018-2019

Test instance.

Davis, George Augustus

  • Person
  • ?

MRCS 1840. House surgeon and surgeon at St George's Hospital.

Surgeon at the St James's Dispensary. Private practice at 119 New Bond Street

Cutler, Edward

  • Person
  • 1796-1874

Born at Wimborne, Dorset, the son of a clergyman. Entered the Navy, but abandoned it in favour of medicine due to ill health. Educated at Great Windmill Street and St George's Hospital.

Assistant surgeon at St George's Hospital 1834-1848, surgeon 1848-1861, consulting surgeon 1861-1874.

Assistant surgeon in the Life Guards 1821-1824. Assisted Sir Benjamin Brodie in his private practice. Surgeon and consulting surgeon at the Lock Hospital. Private practice.

Specialised in venereal diseases.

Married, with a son and a daughter. Retired in 1861. Died 7 Sep 1874 at home, 15 New Burlington Street.

Hewett, Prescott Gardner

  • Person
  • 1812-1891

Born near Doncaster, the son of a country gentleman. Studied art in Paris, intending to become a painter, but choosing to study surgery instead.

Student at St George's Hospital. Demonstrator of anatomy and curator of the museum at St George's Hospital 1840. Lecturer on anatomy 1845. Assistant surgeon 1848-1861, surgeon 1861-1875, consulting surgeon 1875-1891.

President of the Pathological Society of London and the Clinical Society. Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons 1874; Arris and Gale Professor of Human Anatomy and Physiology, member of the council, chairman of the Board of Examiners in Midwifery, vice-president and president of the Royal College of Surgeons. Surgeon-extraordinary to Queen Victoria 1867, sergeant-surgeon extraordinary 1877 and sergeant surgeon following Caesar Hawkins 1884. Surgeon to Prince of Wales, afterwards King Edward VII. Baronet 1883.

Specilisms: Anatomy, head injuries.

Married Sarah Cowell in 1849; they had two daughters and one son. Died 19 Jun 1891 at Horsham, where he had retired to.

Cowell, T.W.

  • Person
  • ?

Listed as assistant apothecary at St George's Hospital in 1843.

SGUL

Johnstone, Athol Archibald Wood

  • Person
  • 1820-1902

Also known as Athol Johnson; son of Dr James Johnson, physician to King William IV, whose surname was by error spelt Johnson instead of Johnstone. Athol Johnstone reverted to the original spelling after the death of his father.

Studied medicine at St George's Hospital. House surgeon 1845, demonstrator of anatomy, lecturer on physiology and general anatomy at St George's Hospital. He did not stand for the vacancy of assistant surgeon following the death of Henry Gray in 1861, but moved to Brighton.

Surgeon to the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street. Surgeon to the Royal Alexandra Hospital for children with hip Disease. Surgeon to the St James's Dispensary. Surgeon to the Brighton and Sussex Throat and Ear Hospital, the Invalid Gentlewomen's Home and to the Brighton Battery of the Royal Naval Artillery.

Married twice. died 16 Mar 1902 in Brighton.

Barclay, Andrew Whyte

  • Person
  • 1817-1884

Born in Fife. Educated at the Royal High School, Edinburgh. Spent a winter as a medical student at the Westminster Hospital. Qualified in 1838 and spent time in Germany, Italy, Switzerland and France before studying at Caius College, Cambridge 1842; MB 1847.

Medical registrar at St George's Hospital 1847, assistant physician 1857, physician 1862-1882, consulting physician, lecturer on materia medica and physic.

Lumleian lecturer, censor, Harveian orator and treasurer at the Royal College of Physicians. President of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society 1881. Published 'Manual of Medical Diagnosis' 1851, and on heart disease. Chelsea's first medical officer of health, examiner on sanitary science in Cambridge.

Died at Stevenage.

Dickinson, William Howship

  • Person
  • 1832-1913

Born in Brighton and educated at Caius College, Cambridge and St George's Hospital; graduated in 1859.

Curator of the museum at St George's Hospital 1859, with further junior posts; assistant physician 1866-1874, physician 1874-1894, consulting physician 1894-1913.

Assistant physician at the Hospital for Sick Children 1861-1869, physician 1869-1874. Censor and curator of the museum at the Royal College of Physicians; Croonian lecturer, Harveian orator. Examiner at the Royal College of Surgeons and at the universities of Cambridge, London and Durham.

Specialised in kidney diseases and children's diseases.

Married in 1861 Laura Wilson, daughter of James Arthur Wilson, physician at St George's Hospital; they had four daughters and two sons, including William Lee Dickinson, who also studied medicine at St George's Hospital. Died 9 Jan 1913.

Rogers, George Goddard

  • Person
  • ?-1897

Born in Newport Pagnell. Studied medicine at St Andrew's University. MRCS 1855, MRCP 1859.

Student at St George's Hospital 1852. Medical registrar at St George's Hospital in the 1850s.

Physician at the West London Hospital and the Royal Hospital for the Diseases of the Chest. Medical inspector at HM Privy Council.

Died 23 Apr 1897.

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