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Authority record

St George's Hospital, London

  • GB/NNAF/C179806 (Former ISAAR ref: GB/NNAF/O108191 )
  • Corporate body
  • 1733-

St George's Hospital opened in 1733 at Lanesborough House, Hyde Park Corner in London, in what was then a countryside location. The hospital owes its existence to four men, Henry Hoare, William Wogan, Robert Witham and the Reverend Patrick Cockburn, who collectively founded the Westminster Public Infirmary in Petty France in 1720. The ever increasing needs of the sick forced the Westminster Public Infirmary to seek improved and enlarged premises. A disagreement between members of both the Governors and medical staff on the choice of building led to the founding of both Westminster Hospital in Castle Lane and Saint George's Hospital on Hyde Park Corner.

In 1735, Saint George's Hospital purchased the freehold of Lanesborough House, two adjoining houses and two acres of land. Under the direction of Isaac Ware of the Board of Works, the hospital was enlarged to accommodate 200 patients. By 1825 the hospital was falling into disrepair. A competition was held for the design of a new hospital. It was won by William Wilkins, and the new building was opened at Hyde Park Corner in 1829. Since its foundation, Saint George's Hospital has been training medical students. In 1834, a medical school was established in Kinnerton Street and it was incorporated into the main hospital building in 1868.

Just before the beginning of the Second World War, it was decided that Saint George's needed to be rebuilt on its Hyde Park Corner site. The plan was however abandoned by the commencement of hostilities. During the War, against a background of the population shift from central London, discussions took place which paved the way for Saint George's to be rebuilt and transferred out of the city centre. With the introduction of the National Health Service in 1948, the hospital became part of the Saint George's Hospital Teaching Group of the South West Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board. Soon after, the Board of Governors persuaded Aneurin Bevan, the Minister of Health, that the new hospital should be built on the Grove Fever Hospital and Fountain Hospital sites in Tooting. Patients began to be admitted into the Grove Hospital in 1951 and, by 1953, the Grove Hospital was designated to Saint George's and responsibility for it was transferred from the Wandsworth Hospital Group to the Board of Governors of Saint George's. The Fountain Children's Hospital site adjacent to the Grove Hospital was added to the land available for the Saint George's Hospital redevelopment when the Fountain transferred to Queen Mary's Hospital, Carshalton.

The building of the new Saint George's at Tooting, South West London, began in 1973. Following the reorganisation of the National Health Service in 1974, the Board of Governors was disbanded, and the responsibility for Saint George's Hospital was passed to the Wandsworth and Merton District of the Merton, Sutton and Wandsworth Area Health Authority. South West Thames Regional Health Authority assumed responsibility for the rebuilding of the new Saint George's. The first phase of the new Saint George's Hospital Medical School opened in 1976. The hospital at Hyde Park closed its doors for the final time in 1980 and HM Queen Elizabeth II formally opened the new St George's Hospital and Medical School at Tooting on 6 November 1980. Lanesborough Wing, the first of the ward blocks opened in 1980. In 1993, Saint George's Hospital came under the control of Saint George's Healthcare NHS Trust.

The hospital has been administered by the following:

1733 - 1948: Saint George's Hospital
1948 - 1974: Saint George's Hospital Teaching Group of South West Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board
1974 - 1982: Merton, Sutton and Wandsworth Area Health Authority of South West Thames Regional Hospital Board
1982 - 1993: Wandsworth District Health Authority of South West Thames Regional Hospital Board
1993 - : Saint George's Healthcare NHS Trust

St George's Hospital Medical School, London

  • GB/NNAF/C43282 (Former ISAAR ref: GB/NNAF/O27447 )
  • Corporate body
  • 1752-

St George's, University of London (legal name St George's Hospital Medical School, informally St George's or SGUL), is a medical school located in Tooting in South West London. The Medical School shares a closely related history with St George's Hospital, which opened in 1733 at Lanesborough House, Hyde Park Corner in Central London. St George's was the second institution in England to provide formal training courses for doctors (after the University of Oxford). The Medical School became a constituent college of the University of London soon after the latter's establishment in 1836.

From the very beginning, the physicians and surgeons were permitted by the laws of the Hospital to have a limited number of pupils. A formal register of pupils was maintained from 1752. The earliest recorded course of lectures at the hospital was that delivered by Sir Everard Home some time before 1803. Prior to this, there were no lectures and little regular teaching at all in the Hospital other than what the students could pick up from the physicians and surgeons on their way round the wards. Attempts to remedy this situation were a cause of friction between renowned surgeon John Hunter and his colleagues. In 1793 they drew up a number of suggestions and regulations relating to the instruction and discipline of the pupils of the hospital.

From the beginning of the nineteenth century medical training became more structured, and pupils at St George's were required to learn anatomy at either Hunter's, Lane's, Carpue's or Brookes' schools of anatomy, which were private academies set up for this purpose. Chemistry was taught at the Royal Institution in Albermarle Street in addition to the clinical subjects which were dealt with at St George's Hospital.

Samuel Lane's anatomy school was known as 'The School of Anatomy and Medicine adjoining St George's Hospital'. Due to disagreement between Mr Lane and other medical officers at St George's, it was seen as essential to have a school of anatomy more closely connected to St George's and controlled by staff there. This led to surgeon Benjamin Brodie purchasing a house on Kinnerton Street, which he then leased back to St George's for use as an anatomy theatre, a lecture room and a museum. As a result of this, for 20 years there were now two rival schools associated with St George's. Attempts were made to amalgamate the two schools, but none succeeded. Finally the Kinnerton School moved to buildings attached to the hospital in 1868 and became the sole "Medical School of St George's Hospital". Lane's school closed down in 1863.

Although pupils were trained at the Hospital from its foundation, the medical school was not formally established until 1834 when it opened at the premises on Kinnerton Street. The formal opening ceremony for the school was held in 1835 in the Anatomy Theatre on the premises, and saw the dissection of an ancient Egyptian mummy.

In 1868 the medical school at Kinnerton Street was moved to the buildings at the south-west corner of the hospital site in Hyde Park itself, with the main entrance in Knightsbridge and the back entrance on Grosvenor Crescent Mews. Until 1946 the Medical School, although recognised as a School of London University, was controlled by a Medical School Committee, made up of honorary staff of the Hospital. In 1945 the Medical School Committee was divided into a School Council and an Academic Board.

In 1915, in response to wartime staff shortages, St George's admitted its first four female medical students. Just before the outbreak of World War Two, it was decided that Saint George's needed to be rebuilt on its Hyde Park Corner site. The plan was however abandoned by the commencement of the war. During the War, against a background of the population shift from central London, discussions took place which paved the way for Saint George's to be rebuilt and transferred out of the city centre. With the introduction of the National Health Service in 1948, the hospital became part of the Saint George's Hospital Teaching Group of the South West Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board. Soon after, the Board of Governors persuaded Aneurin Bevan, the Minister of Health, that the new Hospital should be built on the Grove Fever Hospital and Fountain Hospital sites in Tooting.

The building of the new Saint George's at Tooting, South West London, began in 1973. The first phase of the new Saint George's Hospital Medical School opened in 1976. The Hospital at Hyde Park closed its doors for the final time in 1980 and HM Queen Elizabeth II formally opened the new St George's Hospital and Medical School at Tooting on 6 November 1980.

Hunter, John

  • GB/NNAF/P165880 (Former ISAAR ref: GB/NNAF/P14923 )
  • Person
  • 13 February 1728 – 16 October 1793

John Hunter (1728-1793) came to London in 1748 at the age of 20 and worked as an assistant in the anatomy school of his elder brother William (1718-83), who was already an established physician and obstetrician. Under William's direction, John learnt human anatomy and showed great aptitude in the dissection and preparation of specimens. William also arranged for him to study under the eminent surgeons William Cheselden (1688-1752) and Percivall Pott (1714-88).

Hunter was commissioned as an army surgeon in 1760 and spent three years in France and Portugal. As well as developing new ideas on the treatment of common ailments - such as gunshot wounds and venereal disease - Hunter spent time collecting specimens of lizards and other animals. On his return to England in 1763 he began to build up his private practice. His scientific work was rewarded in 1767 when he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1768 he was elected Surgeon to St George's Hospital, and in 1783 he moved to a large house in Leicester Square, which enabled him to take resident pupils and to arrange his collection into a teaching museum.

Hunter devoted all his resources to his museum. It included nearly 14,000 preparations of more than 500 different species of plants and animals. As his reputation grew, he was supplied with rare specimens such as kangaroos brought back by Sir Joseph Banks from James Cook’s voyage of 1768-71.

While most of his contemporaries taught only human anatomy, Hunter's lectures stressed the relationship between structure and function in all kinds of living creatures. Hunter believed that surgeons should understand how the body adapted to and compensated for damage due to injury, disease or environmental changes. He encouraged students such as Edward Jenner and Astley Cooper to carry out experimental research and to apply the knowledge gained to the treatment of patients.

By the 1780s Hunter enjoyed widespread recognition as the leading teacher of surgery of his time. However, the acclaim did little to mellow his blunt-speaking and argumentative nature. His temper was to be his downfall: Hunter died in 1793 after suffering a fit during an argument at St George's Hospital over the acceptance of students for training.

Hunter is today remembered as a founder of `scientific surgery'. He was unique in seeking to provide an experimental basis to surgical practice, and his museum is a lasting record of his pioneering work

Bull, William Henry

  • Person
  • ?-1921

Educated at St George's Hospital and took the diplomas of M.R.C.S in 1874 and of L.R.C.P.Lond. in 1875. He took the F.R.C.S.Edin in 1882.

House Surgeon and Assistant Surgical Registrar at St George's Hospital until he went into practice at Stony Stratford.

He held the Volunteer Decoration, and in 1913 he was appointed Honorary Surgeon to the King. He was a Knight of Grace of the Order of St John of Jerusalem and an honorary associate, lecturer and examiner for the St John Ambulance Association. He was a member of the British Medical Association and had been president of the South Midland Branch. He became a member of the Naval and Military Committee of the British Medical Association in October 1913. For many years was a member of the Bucks Territorial Force Association and was appointed Country Director of the Bucks branch of the British Red Cross Society.

Died at Stony Stratford on 14th August 1921. His son, Lieutenant G J O Bull, 2nd Field Company, East Lancashire was killed in the Dardanelles on 8th July 1915.

Carter, Henry Vandyke

  • Person
  • 1831-1897

Born in Hull, the son of painter Henry Barlow Carter and Eliza Barlow, he grew up in Scarborough. Educated at Hull Grammar School and St George's Hospital, graduating in 1852. Spent a year in Paris following his studies.

Studied anatomy at the Royal College of Surgeons on his return to London. Commissioned to make anatomical drawings for the St George's Hospital School of Medicine in 1853. Bachelor of Medicine at the University of London 1854, a degree he had initially failed the previous year. Demonstrator of anatomy at St George's Hospital.

He met Henry Gray at St George's around 1850, and worked with him to illustrate his books, most famously in 1856-1857 Gray's proposed anatomical textbook, which was to be known later as 'Gray's Anatomy'. Gray, however, did not credit Carter for his work on 'On the Structure and Use of the Spleen', 1851, and there were disagreements about acknowledgments as well as pay of Carter's later work.

Assistant surgeon IMS 1858. Professor of Anatomy and later principal at Grant Medical College. Published 'Spirillum fever, or famine fever, as seen in Western India' in 1882.

Retired with the rank of Deputy Surgeon General in 1888. Honorary surgeon to the queen 1890. Died at Scarborough 4 May 1897.

Dakin, William Radford

  • Person
  • 1860-1935

Born in 1860, the son of John Dakin, JP. Educated at Owens College Manchester and later Guy's Hospital where he graduated as MB, BS in 1882.

After holding house appointments at Guy's Hospital and the General Lying-In Hospital, he was elected physician to the Royal Hospital for Women and Children in 1885 and obstetric physician to the Great Northern Hospital in 1887. In 1891 he was made obstetric physician and lecturer on midwifery at St George's Hospital, before later returning to the General Lying-In Hospital as physician.

He examined in midwifery for Oxford University and the Conjoint Board and in 1897 produced a Handbook of Midwifery. He was president of the Obstetrical Society of London in 1905-06. He emerged from retirement to serve as a surgeon with the French Army in the First World War, receiving the Legion of Honour an the Croix de Guerre.

In 1892 he married Sylvia, daughter of F.T. Lewis, but had no children. He died in a London nursing home in 1935.

Davidson, William Marshall

  • Person
  • ?-1905

Born in Maida Vale, London.

Student at St George's Hospital 1884. MB Lond 1890, MRCS, LRCP 1889. MD London, MRCP. House physician at St George's Hospital 1889, medical registrar 1898, anesthetist.

Consulting physician at the Convent of the Good Shepherd, Hammersmith. Prosector at the Royal College of Surgeons. RMO at the Royal National Hospital for Consumption, Ventnor, Isle of Wight.

Died 19 Oct 1905.

Fedden, Walter Fedde

  • Person
  • 1878-1952

Born in Somerset. Educated at St Paul's School.

Studied at St George's Hospital, 1895; won Treasurer's prize, Pollock prize and the Thompson medal; graduated 1902. House physician, house surgeon, obstetric assistant at St George's Hospital; assistant surgeon 1906, surgeon and lecturer on surgery 1914, consulting surgeon 1934.

Surgeon at the Hampstead General Hospital, Bolingbroke Hospital in Wandsworth; consulting surgeon at the Victoria Hospital for Children, Chelsea. Examiner in surgery at the University of Cambridge and the University of London. During WWI, served in HMS China with the rank of surgeon-lieutenant RNVR. Private practice at 14 Welbeck Street.

Married Sybil Mary Haines in 1920; they had no children. Died suddenly 12 Mar 1952, aged 73 at home.

Fox, Wilfred Stephen

  • Person
  • 1875-1962

Born at Bromborough, the son of Henry Frederick and Ellen Maria (Watson) Fox. Educated at Marlborough, Trinity College, Cambridge, and St George's Hospital.

After holding house posts and proceeding to his MD he decided to specialise in dermatology and spent some time at the St Louis Hospital in Paris. In 1906 he was appointed skin physician at St George's Hospital and a full member of staff. He worked at St George's Hospital for twenty years and also served as treasurer and first director of the venereal diseases clinic. He was also for a time assistant physician and lecturer in dermatology at the Seaman's Hospital, Greenwich, and on the staff of St John's Hospital for Diseases of the Skin. He also conducted a practice at his house in Grosvenor Street. On compulsory retirement in 1926 he became chairman of Duncan, Fox & Co., an import and export house. He drove ambulances in the first and second world war and he was evacuated from Dunkirk in 1940.

He died in 1962. His wife died in 1945. They had one son and a daughter.

Gamgee, Arthur

  • Person
  • 1841-1909

Son of veterinary surgeon and pathologist Joseph Gamgee, brother of surgeon Sampson Gamgee. Born in Florence, Italy. Educated at University College School in London. Studied medicine at Edinburgh University; MD 1862.

House physician at the Royal Infirmary. Assistant tothe professor of medical jurisprudence 1863. Physician to the Royal Hospital for Sick Children. Lecturer on physiology at Surgeons' Hall in Edinburgh. Fellow of the Royal Society aged 31. Worked in Germany at Heidelberg and Leipzig in 1871. Brackenbury professor of physiology at Owens College, Manchester 1873. Dean of the Medical School at Manchester. Physician to the Hospital for Consumption. Fullerian professor of physiology at the Royal Institution in London. Examiner for the Universities of Oxford and London. Consulting physician at St Leonards.

Assistant physician and lecturer on pharmacology at St George's Hospital 1887.

Resigned in 1889 due to ill health, settling in Switzerland after a year at Cambridge. Continued working as a consultant and researcher. Croonian lecturer at the Royal Society 1902.

Married Mary Louisa Clark in 1875; they had two daughters and one son. Returned to England before his death, and died while visiting Paris in 1909.

Hooper, John Henry

  • Person
  • 1834-1910

Born in London. Educated at King's College School and St George's Hospital. MRCS 1858, LSA 1856.

House surgeon at St George's Hospital 1857, obstetric assistant 1858-1860. Member of the Pathological Society of London.

Emigrated to New Zealand. in 1861. Assistant surgeon to the medical officer to the British Army and to the Auckland Cavalry Volunteers. Surgeon to the Auckland Rifle Brigade Volunteers. Surgeon to the Auckland Dispensary. Surgeon at the Auckland Hospital.

Married Elizabeth Morrow in 1862, and Frances Etta Mary Butt in 1902. He had two children. Died 6 Dec 1910 in Auckland, New Zealand.

Myers, Arthur Thomas

  • Person
  • 1851-1894

Born at Keswick on 16th April 1851, the son of a clergyman. He was educated at Cheltenham and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took a first class in classics and a second in natural sciences.

Myers did his clinical training at St George's Hospital, qualifying as LSA in 1879, and then held house appointments there. He obtained his Doctor of Medicine degree in 1881 and was made a Fellow of the College of Physicians in 1893. Myers suffered from attacks of an epileptic nature which prevented him from receiving a position on the staff of a teaching hospital. He was physician to the Belgrave Hospital for Children. His chief interest was in psychical research.

Myers died on 10th January 1894.

Pendlebury, Herbert Stringfellow

  • Person
  • 1870-1953

Born in Wigan, the son of a clothing manufacturer. Educated at St John's College, Grimsargh, near Preston, and Pembroke College, Cambridge. Studied natural sciences.

Student at St George's Hospital Medical School 1895; house surgeon and house physician 1898; surgical registrar and demonstrator of anatomy 1899; assistant surgeon 1900-1905; surgeon 1905.

Consulting surgeon at the Royal Waterloo Hospital for Women and Children and the Kensington Dispensary and Children's Hospital. Private practice at 44 Brook Street, London. Examiner at Cambridge University, the Society of Apothecaries and the Court of Examiners. The first honorary secretary of the newly amalgamated Royal Society of Medicine 1907; later honorary treasurer and honorary fellow. The first honorary secretary of the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland. Served on the Council of Medical Society of London.

Married Lilian Dorothea Lane, who died in 1921. They had one son, John, who became an archeologist and was killed in Greece in 1942. Pendlebury's second marriage was in 1935 to Mabel Webb (d.1959). Retired to Malvern. Died in Malvern 21 April 1953, aged 82.

Rolleston, Humphry Davy

  • Person
  • 1862-1944

Son of George Rolleston, physician and surgeon, professor of physiology at Oxford. His mother Grace Davy was niece of Sir Humphry Davy, chemist. Brother of J.D. Rolleston, surgeon. Educated at Marlborough; studied natural sciences at St John's College, Cambridge. Studied medicine at St Bartholomew's Hospital; MB 1888.

Held junior roles at St Bartholomew's. Demonstrator at Cambridge; fellow of St John's College. Employed at the Metropolitan Hospital and the Victoria Hospital for Children.

Curator of the museum at St George's Hospital. Assistant physician 1893-1898, physician 1898-1918, consulting physician 1918.

Consulting appointments at the King Edward VII Sanatorium, Midhurst, and the Royal National Hospital, Ventnor. Served at the Imperial Yeomanry Hospital, Pretoria in South Africa during the Boer War. Consulting surgeon to the Royal Navy during the First World War as surgeon rear-admiral. Medical Consultative Board for the Navy and the Medical Administrative Committee of the RAF and many Royal Commissions. Physician-in-Ordinary to King George V 1923-1932, Physician-Extraordinary 1932. Regius professor at Cambridge 1925-1932. Censor, president, Harveian orator, Goulstonian lecturer, Lumleian lecturer, Lloyd-Roberts lecturer and FitzPatrick lecturer at the Royal College of Physicians; represented RCP and Cambridge University on the General Medical Council. President of the Royal Society of Medicine. Examiner for the universities of Glasgow, Oxford, Cambridge, London, Durham, Manchester, Bristol and Sheffield. KCB 1919, baronet 1924, GCVO 1929.

Published on diseases of the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts, author of the second edition of 'System of Medicine' 1906-1911 with Allbutt, old age and history of medicine.

Married Lisette Eila Ogilvy in 1894; they had two sons. Died home at Haslemere 24 Sep 1944.

Sparrow, Hugh Gordon

  • Person
  • 1886-?

Grandson of Robert Pennington Sparrow (d.1866), who was also a surgeon and student at St George's Hospital in 1843. Born on the Isle of Wight. Educated at Eastman's Royal Navy Academy, University of London and University of Durham.

MRCS, LRCP 1915.

Student at St George's Hospital 1910. Medical registrar, house surgeon and house physician at St George's Hospital.

Worked at John Leigh Neurological Hospital in Cheshire. Assistant MO 1919-1920. Temporary captain RAMC. Deputy commissioner of medical services in the North Western Region. Neurologist and psychiatrist.

Waller, Wathen Ernest

  • Person
  • 1886-1958

Born in 1886, the son of Colonel Stanier Waller and Sophia Louisa Willes. Educated at Marlborough College. He graduated from Oxford University in 1912 with a Bachelor of Medicine and in 1921 with a Doctor of Medicine. He became a member of the Royal College of Physicians in 1921. He practiced in Oxford before he took a resident appointment at St George's Hospital.

He served in the Royal Army Medical Corps in the Iraq Campaign. He returned to Oxford, and practiced there until around 1926 when he moved to Rustington where he remained in practice for the rest of his life.

He married Mary Anne Cameron in 1922. He died in 1958 aged 72.

Sturges, Octavius

  • Person
  • 1833-1894

Educated at King's College School and East India Company's Military College; Bombay Artillery 1852. Served in India and Aden, and resigned due to ill health in 1857. Studied at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, BA 1861, MB 1862, and St George's Hospital.

Worked as a medical registrar St George's Hospital from 1863.

Assistant physician at the Westminster Hospital 1868, physician 1875, lecturer 1868-1893. Assistant physician at the Hospital for Sick Children 1873, physician 1884. Lecturer and Censor at the Royal College of Physicians, 1894; fellow of RCP in 1870. Examiner in medicine at Cambridge.

Specialisms: Pneumonia, chorea.

Died in an accident in London in 1894, knocked down by a hansom cab. He was unmarried

Bostock, Marian Noel

  • Person
  • 1891-1975

Grew up in Victoria, Canada. Daughter of Hewitt Bostock. British Columbia senator. Sent to school in England aged 15, educated at Prior's Field, Godalming.

Student at St George's Hospital Medical School 1914. MB, BS Lond 1917. MRCS, LRCP 1917. Surgical registrar, house surgeon, obstetric assistant and resident anaesthetist at St George's Hospital.

House physician at Queen's Hospital for Children in Hackney.

Missionary in India in 1922-1934, where she met her husband Victor Sherman. They moved to Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, where she founded the Humanist League of Canada. Chairperson of the mental hygiene committee for the Canadian Council of Women. Canadian Humanist of the Year 1975.

Dancy, John Horace

  • Person
  • 1890-?

Educated at Ramsgate and St Laurence College. Student at St George's Hospital Medical School 1911. MB, BS Lond 1919. MRCS, LRCP 1914,

Senior clinical assistant at Victoria Park Chest Hospital and National Hospital for the Diseases of Heart. Assistant medical officer at Downs Sanatorium, Sutton. Temporary captain at RAMC, 1914-16, took part in Gallipoli landing. General practice in Shepherd's Bush 1919-1928, in Brighton 1929-1934 and in Richmond 1934.

Sellwood, George Binford

  • Person
  • 1891-1938

Born in Cullompton, Devon. Educated at Malvern College and Emmanuel College, Cambridge. BA 1912. MRCS, LRCP 1916.

Student at St George's Hospital Medical School 1913. Surgical registrar, house surgeon and house physician at St George's Hospital.

RMO at the Hospital of Saint John and Saint Elizabeth.

Trevor, Robert Salusbury

  • Person
  • ?-1918

Educated at Marlborough College; Clare College, Cambridge 1891; BA 1894; MA 1898, MB and BChir

Lecturer in pathology and forensic medicine at St George's Hospital; dean of the Medical School.

Pathologist at Grosvenor Hospital and Belgrave Hospital for Children

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